Table 1. BSL-4 Laboratories in the United States
InstitutionName of the LaboratoryFunds AllocatedOperational StatusOther Information
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(Atlanta, GA)
CDC Special Pathogens Branch, Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratory
$214 million to complete the Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratory in October 200526*New facility opened in 2005; prior lab opened in 198826         
(Ft. Detrick, MD)$6 million upgrade to BSL-4 facilities in 2005; expansions projected to begin in 2006

1969;estimated completion date for upgrades is 201227

Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research
(San Antonio, TX)
BSL-4 Laboratory, Department of Virology and Immunology
As of 2005, endowment exceeds $80 million,28 70% funded by competitive peer-reviewed NIH grants, 12% private endowments.Gloveboxes since the 1970s;29 went to full biocontainment in 1999; opened in March 200030

Conducts classified research; also has a national primate research center.30 Serves as part of the BSL-4 Core of the NIAID Western Regional Center of Excellence in Biodefense.31

University of Texas Medical Branch
(Galveston, TX)
UTMB Robert E. Shope, MD, BSL-4 Laboratory
$15.5 million32June 200432Serves as part of the BSL-4 Core of the NIAID Western Regional Center of Excellence in Biodefense.31
Georgia State University
(Atlanta, GA)
Viral Immunology Center
NIH grants,33 National Center for Research Resources (NCRR)operational              
Virginia Commonwealth University
(Richmond, VA)
Virginia Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services (DCLS)
$63 million to complete BSL-4 facilities building34


Department of Homeland Security
(Ft. Detrick, MD)
National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC)
$128 million appropriated over FY2003–2005; estimated construction cost $141 million35Broke ground June 2006; planned opening in 200838

Governed by DHS Science and Technology Directorate; will conduct bioforensics and biological threat characterization.36 The NBACC facility will provide biocontainment laboratory space for the National Bioforensic Analysis Center (NBFAC) and the Biological Threat Characterization Center (BTCC).37

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
(Hamilton, MT)
Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML) Integrated Research Facility
$66.5 million budgeted by Congress38

Construction began in 2004; slated for occupancy in 200739

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and University of TX Medical Branch
(Galveston, TX)
Galveston National Biocontainment Laboratory

Total anticipated cost: $167 million ($110 million funded by NIH; UTMB to provide remainder) Estimated annual operating costs: $20 million+40

Projected opening date: June 200841

To study anthrax, plague, hemorrhagic fevers (such as Ebola), typhus, West Nile virus, influenza, drug-resistant TB, etc.42

NIAID and Boston University
(Boston, MA)
BU National Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense
$178 million ($128 million by NIAID)43

Expected construction completion date: 200844

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
(Fort Detrick, MD)
NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick
$105 million budgeted45Estimated completion date: summer 200827                   
   *See reference list for article